PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration)
PESA (Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration) is a simple surgical sperm retrieval procedure. It is usually performed under local anesthesia. Sperm can be extracted with a fine needle from the epidermis or from the testes directly. ICSI (Intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is always used in conjunction with the PESA procedure.
Surgical sperm retrieval procedures are recommended when there is an absence of sperm from the ejaculate, sperm is unable to reach the urethra for ejaculation, inadequate sperm production or absence of the vas deferens – the ducts from which the sperm is transferred to the urethra.
TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration)
Sperm may be extracted directly from the testes, where there is no sperm in the epidiermis. The procedure is called TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration) or TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction), which involves a biopsy, which is sent for cytology and image analysis.
MESA (Micro-epididymal sperm aspiration)
MESA (micro-epididymal sperm aspiration) is the most invasive of the surgical sperm retrieval procedures. It is performed under general anesthesia. MESA involves the cutting open of the scrotum to retrieve sperm. Swelling and pain subsides within a few days.
Sperm extracted from any of the above procedures can be frozen and cryopreserved for future use.