IVF with sperm donation
IVF with sperm donation is a well-established form of Assisted Reproductive Technology. Sperm donation is recommended to selected group of patients, for example when the female partner is fertile but the male partner has severe abnormalities in the semen parameters. These abnormalities include both obstructive and non-obstructive absence of sperm (azoospermia), which may be congenital or acquired. Decreased sperm count (oligospermia) or other sperm or seminal fluid abnormalities are also indications for donor insemination. It is also indicated when the male has ejaculatory dysfunction or when female is Rh-sensitized and the male partner is Rh-positive. Couples where the male partner is at risk of passing a genetically inherited disease to children may choose sperm donation with artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization. Since the late 1980s with the emergence of AIDS, artificial donor insemination has been performed with frozen and quarantined sperm. It is recommended that sperm be quarantined for at list six months before being released for use.
Donor Selection and Screening
Couples may choose anonymous donor sperm from a sperm bank or a known donor. All prospective sperm donors should be healthy men of normal intelligence and fertility with no history of mental disorders or genetic or inherited or sexually transmitted diseases. Couples can select a sperm donor matching their characteristics (physical characteristics, IQ level, ethnicity, blood group, etc).
Anonymous sperm donors are screened for risk factors and clinical evidence of communicable disease agent or disease. A comprehensive medical questionnaire to evaluate health of a donor and review of his family medical history is the essential of selecting a donor. Prospective donors undergo a physical examination with screening for visible physical abnormalities, as well as testing for sexually transmitted disease. Infectious disease testing should be carried out and noted to be negative within 7 days of all sperm donation. Routine blood analyses should be performed. Ethnically based genetic testing is standard in most sperm banks. However, no screening program can be totally guaranteed.
All donor sperm whether known or anonymous should be frozen and stored for a minimum period of six months so that a retesting for infectious diseases, in particular HIV can be carried out on the donor before the sperm is used. Donor sperm is analyzed for motility and count to ensure successful fertilization. Sample will be thawed to evaluate post-freezing semen parameters. Not all fertile men may be suitable as sperm donors. Donor sperm can be used for donor insemination or for IVF with donor sperm.
Evaluation of the Recipient
It is essential that recipient be adequately screened before being accepted onto the program with the comprehensive medical history and physical exam. In addition to pelvic examination, a hysterosalpingogram will further evaluate the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Additional tests to determine blood group and Rhesus factor (Rh) may be performed. Some clinics will require all recipient couples to be screened for certain infectious disease; it may include HIV, Hepatitis B and C.
An infertility clinic will try to match the donor and recipient's physical characteristics, ethnic background, height and weight, complexion, medical history, IQ, personality traits as closely as possible. Blood type and Rh factor, in particular with Rh negative recipients should be considered.
IVF with sperm donation -procedure
The procedure for in vitro fertilization with sperm donation is similar to traditional IVF. Mature egg is collected from the woman following a cycle of fertility drugs to induce ovulation and is then fertilized using the donor sperm. ICSI is used in IVF treatments with sperm donation to increase the chance of successful fertilization. The donated sperm is separated from semen, washed, spun and the healthiest sperm are individually selected by fertility specialists. One sperm is injected directly into the center (cytoplasm) of the egg to ensure successful fertilization.
IVF success rates depend on the age of the woman, the number of embryos transferred and cryopreserved, the recipient's response to drugs, and the clinic. One thing that can factor in to the success rates of sperm donation with IVF is the type of sperm donation. Frozen sperm results may offer a lower chance of pregnancy than freshly donated sperm.
IVF can be associated with the following complications: possible displacement of the embryos into the cervix, resulting in a lost embryo, or in the fallopian tubes, resulting in tubal (ectopic) pregnancy; multiple pregnancies .If IVF with sperm donation results in an unsuccessful pregnancy or no pregnancy, different methods of IVF should be considered, such as Embryo Donor IVF or IUI Sperm Donor.